The basics

Money

Canada uses the Canadian dollar (CAD). Canadian businesses generally honor the same credit cards as in the U.S. and the U.K. Visa and MasterCard are the most common but American Express is often accepted in hotels and their associated restaurants.
CIBC ATMs might be the most common ATMs and can be found at many gas station convenience stores.

Languages

The principle languages of Canada are French and are the official languages of all federal government institutions in Canada. This means that the public has the right to communicate with, and receive services from, federal government institutions in either English or French.  Of Canada's 10 provinces and three territories , only Quebec recognizes French as its official language and is the only place in Canada where French is the sole official language.

Geography & Culture

Canada is the world's second-largest country with 8,000 kilometers (500 miles) of land separating the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The east coast is characterized by its Atlantic Maritime Provinces (Nova Scotia/New Brunswick/PEI and Newfoundland), and strong a Celtic influence. Keep in mind that LGBTQ culture on the east side happens in French.
The west coast is known for nicer weather and beautiful scenery. The queer scene is stereotyped as latte sipping, granola crunching, and sushi eating - you might meet your next date at an rally for the whales. Northern B.C. or "the interior" is definitely the conservative heartland of Canada.

Transportation

VIA Rail Canada runs Canadian long-distance trains www.viarail.ca.  As well as VIA Rail, check out the excellent Rocky Mountaineer through the Rockies between Vancouver & Banff, Calgary or Jasper. 
Trains are a unique way to see the country although the infrastructure is nowhere near as robust as European or Asian train networks.  Travel on the inter-city trains between Toronto, Montréal and Québec, the Océan from Montréal  to Halifax or Canada's classic trans-continental train, The Canadian from Toronto to Winnipeg, Edmonton, Jasper & Vancouver. 

On the 144-mile Icefields Parkway, connecting Banff and Jasper National Parks, the majestic beauty of the Canadian Rockies will take your breath away - slow down since you won't be able to keep your eyes on the road!
The Viking Trail is one of the most majestic roads in Newfoundland and it crosses two World Heritage sites, Gros Morne National Park and L'Anse aux Meadows. Rocky coastlines, wildlife (including whales and seals), and even an iceberg concentration in Newfoundland, await the road tripper.

Air Canada (TSX) is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. Its budget subsidiary is Air Canada Rouge.
WestJet covers most of Canada with a significant number connecting flights to the United States and the Caribbean. WestJest connects to limited cities in Mexico and has two connections to Europe via Dublin and Glasgow.